The Important moments of digital photography history
The Evolution of Digital Photography!
- 1 Digicam
- 2 The first true working digital camera
- 3 Image sensors.
- 4 The first handheld digital camera from Eastman Kodak
- 5 The Bayer Pattern color filter array (CFA)
- 6 The Science of Camera Sensors
- 7 The first digital image scanner
- 8 Nobel Prize in Physics for Charge Coupled Device (CCD)
- 9 An image sensor
The Digital photography name is based on “Digicam” ( military camouflage method using micropatterns) or Digital camouflage.
The first true working digital camera
1981 The first true working digital camera was built by the University of Calgary Canada ASI Science Team. Their All-Sky camera was designed to photograph auroras and used one of the 100 x 100 pixel Fairchild CCD
Peter JW Noble Inventor of the active pixel, the core of almost all digital imaging devices, for which he received the MBE in January 2018. The exception to the active pixel is CCD image sensors, used in specialist applications.
Peter JW Noble received the IISS Pioneering Achievement Award at the 2015 IISW in Vaals Netherlands and gave this talk of his life story. Peter Noble was one of the very earliest pioneers of solid-state image sensors in the late 1960’s. Gene Weckler from the USA and Peter JW Noble from the UK invented first MOS and in 1966 Peter JW Noble invited his first active pixel sensor.
Eugene F. Lally The early research and use of digital photography science going back to the Eugene F. Lally He was an American aerospace engineer. He worked in the early 1960s on U.S. interplanetary space programs. in 1934. In his early days, his mother gave him a Kodak Box camera which sparked his interest in photography and at the age of 14, when color film became available, he developed a way to reduce the red-eye problem caused by using strobes
Lally’s papers on American Rocket Society conference presented in 1961 about “mosaic guidance” His proposal was an array of electro-optical sensors connected to an on-board “computer” that would provide autonomous navigation by tracking the relative movement of stars and planetary occultations during space flight and planetary landings. All modern spacecraft navigation systems, such as “AutoNav”, are derived from his proposals. It was also the first presentation of a digital photography concept and digital camera design usable on spacecraft and for general photography.
Lally is widely acknowledged for coining the words Digital Photography.
His Mosaic Guidance paper was later reviewed by Bell Laboratories. Fairchild Semiconductor picked up Bell’s work on imaging sensors and approached him in 1973 with a CCD and asked him to build a digital camera prototype according to his Mosaic Guidance proposal, Lally had to decline as he was too busy working on space programs, developing products with his company and other activities. Lally suggested they contact Kodak which they did and Kodak accepted and in 1975 Steven Sasson invented the first handheld digital camera for Eastman Kodak Company referred to simply as Kodak.
The first handheld digital camera from Eastman Kodak
1975 Steven Sasson invented the first handheld digital camera for Eastman Kodak Company referred to simply as Kodak.
The Bayer Pattern color filter array (CFA)
Bryce Bayer – 1976 The Bayer Pattern color filter array (CFA) was invented by Eastman Kodak researcher Bryce Bayer. The order in which dyes are placed on an image sensor photosite is still in use today. The basic technology is still the most commonly used of its kind to date.
Bryce Bayer Eastman Kodak research scientist Bryce E. Bayer pronounced BYE-er born August 15, 1929 -November 13, 2012, was an American scientist who invented the Bayer filter, which is used in most modern digital cameras. He has been called “the maestro without whom photography, as we know wouldn’t have been the same.” Without his filter, Larry Scarff, a former chairman of the Camera Phone Image Quality Standards Group, told the New York Times after Bayer’s death, “we’d still be getting only black-and-white pictures from our digital cameras.
1. The original scene of a garden with some tulips and narcissus. 2. The response of a 120-pixel × 80-pixel sensor with a Bayer filter in a digital camera. 3. The response color-coded with the Bayer filter colors. 4. The reconstructed image after interpolating the missing color information. 5. Full RGB version of 1, downscaled to 120×80 (then upscaled using nearest neighbor). He had been at Kodak for 23 years when, in 1974, he completed his design for a device that captured detailed color images. It is known throughout the industry as the Bayer filter.
The Science of Camera Sensors
The first digital image scanner
Russell A. Kirsch is an American former engineer at the National Bureau of Standards who developed the first digital image scanner.
The first digital image was scanned image of Russell Kirsch’s son Walden, 1957 which was selected by the Life magazine in 2007 as one of the 100 images that changed the world.
Nobel Prize in Physics for Charge Coupled Device (CCD)
Willard S. Boyle left, and George E. Smith
In 1969, Willard S. Boyle left, and George E. Smith invented the charge-coupled device (CCD), for which they have jointly received the Franklin Institute’s Stuart Ballantine Medal in 1973, the 1974 IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Memorial Award, the 2006 Charles Stark Draper Prize, and the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics.
However, Eugene Gordon and Mike Tompsett, two now-retired colleagues from Bell labs, claim that its application to photography was not invented by Boyle. The CCD allowed NASA to send clear pictures to Earth back from space. It is also the technology that powers many digital cameras today. Smith said of their invention: “After making the first couple of imaging devices, we knew for certain that chemistry photography was dead.
An image sensor
An image sensor or imaging sensor is a sensor that detects and conveys the information that constitutes an image. It does so by converting the variable attenuation of light waves into signals, small bursts of current that convey the information. The waves can be light or other electromagnetic radiation. Image sensors are used in electronic imaging devices of both analog and digital types, which include digital cameras, camera modules, medical imaging equipment, night vision equipment such as thermal imaging devices, radar, sonar, and others. As technology changes, digital imaging tends to replace analog imaging.
Early analog sensors for visible light were video camera tubes. Currently, used types are semiconductor charge-coupled devices (CCD) or active pixel sensors in complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) or N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS, Live MOS) technologies. Analog sensors for invisible radiation tend to involve vacuum tubes of various kinds. Digital sensors include flat panel detectors.
Quanta Image Sensor:
In February of 2018, researchers at Dartmouth College announced a new image sensing technology that the researchers call QIS, for Quanta Image Sensor. Instead of pixels, QIS chips have what the researchers call “jots.” Each jot can detect a single particle of light, called a photon.
Professor Eric R. Fossum One of the world’s top image sensor experts. He is the primary inventor of the CMOS image sensor camera-on-a-chip that enables about 4 billion new cameras each year. He is presently a Professor at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College. His research focus is on the Quanta Image Sensor (QIS), a possible 3rd generation image sensor technology based on photon counting which he invented in 2005. He has founded several companies, including Photobit Corporation, spun out from NASA/JPL (Caltech) in 1995 and sold to Micron in 2001 to commercialize the CMOS image sensor technology he invented at JPL. He was CEO of Siimpel Corporation which was sold to Tessera. He has published over 290 papers and has over 160 issued US patents. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. He serves on the Board of the National Academy of Inventors. He co-founded the Int. Image Sensor Society and served as its 1st President. He is an IEEE and OSA Fellow. He has received many prestigious honors, including the 2017 Queen Elizabeth Prize, regarded as the Nobel Prize of engineering, for the creation of digital imaging sensors.